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The naimon (inner gate) of the Kantakeyama

Shinen at the Samukawa Shrine opens toward

the eight-sided stone marker indicating the

source of the water in the Namba no Koike pond.

A simple bamboo spout drips water into the chōzubachi (water basin) in the Shōjutei garden at the private residence Rifugio.

The Suitōkyosei courtyard garden provides views of refined nature from the head priest’s office and the adjoining tatami room at the Gionji temple reception building.

zen gardens

THE COMPLETE WORKS OF

SHUNMYO

MASUNO

JAPAN’S LEADING GARDEN

DESIGNER

TUTTLE Publishing Tokyo Rutland, Vermont Singapore Published by Tuttle Publishing, an imprint of Periplus Editions (HK) Ltd., www.tuttlepublishing.com Text copyright © 2012 by Mira Locher Photographs and Illustrations copyright © 2012 by Shunmyo Masuno Wakei no Niwa Photographs copyright © 2012 by Canadian Museum of Civilization All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without prior written permission from the publisher.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Locher, Mira.

Zen gardens: the complete works of Shunmyo Masuno, Japan’s leading garden designer.—1st ed.

p. cm.

Author: Mira Locher.

Includes bibliographical references.

ISBN: 978-1-4629-1049-6 (ebook)

1. Gardens, Japanese—Zen influences. 2. Gardens—

Design. 3. Masuno, Shunmyo. I. Title. II. Title:

Complete works of Shunmyo Masuno, Japan’s leading garden designer.

SB458.L63 2012 635.9’77373—dc23 Distributed by North America, Latin America & Europe Tuttle Publishing 364 Innovation Drive, North Clarendon, VT 05759U.S.A.

Tel: 1 (802) 773-8930; Fax: 1 (802) 773-6993 info@tuttlepublishing.com; www.tuttlepublishing.com Japan Tuttle Publishing Yaekari Building, 3rd Floor, 5-4-12 Osaki, Shinagawaku, Tokyo 141-0032 Tel: (81) 3 5437-0171; Fax: (81) 3 5437-0755 sales@tuttle.co.jp; www.tuttle.co.jp Asia Pacific Berkeley Books Pte. Ltd.

61 Tai Seng Avenue #02-12, Singapore 534167 Tel: (65) 6280-1330; Fax: (65) 6280-6290 inquiries@periplus.com.sg; www.periplus.com First edition Printed in Singapore 1206CP TUTTLE PUBLISHING® is a registered trademark of Tuttle Publishing, a division of Periplus Editions (HK) Ltd.

The evening light shimmers in the quiet reflecting pool of the Shōka no Niwa (Ascension Garden) in the Yūkyūen garden at the Hofu City Crematorium.

A nobedan (stone walkway) and steppingstones lead to the shihō hotoke tsukubai chōzubachi (four-sided Buddha water basin) in the Mushintei garden at the Suifūso guesthouse.

contents Foreword by Shigeru Uchida Two Pairs of Straw 10 Sandals: Zen Priest Garden Designer Shunmyo Masuno 21 Notes on Language

TRADITIONAL

GARDENS

Traditional Zen Gardens in the 21st Century 26 SŌSEIEN, RETREAT HOUSE GINRINSŌ, COMPANY

GUESTHOUSE

KYOTO PREFECTURAL

RECEPTION HALL

40 ART LAKE GOLF CLUB

BAKUSHŌTEI, IMABARI

KOKUSAI HOTEL

48 RYŪMONTEI, GIONJI TEMPLE

FUSHOTEI, RENSHŌJI TEMPLE

GUESTHOUSE

ZANSHINTEI, SANKEIEN

56 KAKUSHOKAKU RECEPTION

HALL 60 SANDŌ, KŌENJI TEMPLE

MUSHINTEI, GUESTHOUSE

SUIFŪSO

SHŌJUTEI, RIFUGIO PRIVATE

RESIDENCE

CHŌFŪTEI AND SUITŌKYOSEI,

74 GIONJI TEMPLE RECEPTION

BUILDING

78 BAIKATEI, SAIKENJI TEMPLE

GESSHINSŌTEIEN, PRIVATE

RESIDENCE IN YAMANAKA-KO

84 CHŌSETSUKO, GINRINSŌ RYŌKAN 86 CHŌRAITEI, PRIVATE

RESIDENCE IN TOKYO

KEIZAN ZENJI TENBŌRIN NO

NIWA, GOTANJŌJI TEMPLE

KANTAKEYAMA SHINEN,

SAMUKAWA SHRINE

Design and Construction Process: The Kantakeyama Shinen at the Samukawa Shrine

MODERN

GARDENS

Modern Zen Gardens:

114 The Essence of Emptiness

NEW CAMPUS FOR TOKYO

METROPOLITAN UNIVERSITY





THE CANADIAN EMBASSY,

TOKYO

FŪMA BYAKUREN PLAZA,

126 NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR

MATERIALS SCIENCE

NIIGATA PREFECTURAL

MUSEUM OF MODERN ART

SEIFŪ KYORAI NO NIWA,

134 KAGAWA PREFECTURAL

LIBRARY

SEIZAN RYOKUSUI NO NIWA,

136 HOTEL LE PORT

KANZATEI, CERULEAN TOWER

TOKYU HOTEL

YŪKYŪEN, HOFU CITY

CREMATORIUM

SEIFŪDŌKŌ NO NIWA, OPUS 152 ARISUGAWA TERRACE AND

RESIDENCE

SANKITEI, MINISTRY OF

FOREIGN AFFAIRS

YUI NO NIWA SHINSHŌTEI,

160 PRIVATE RESIDENCE IN NISHI

AZABU Mondō: A Dialogue 166 with Shunmyo Masuno

GARDENS

OUTSIDE

JAPAN Zen Gardens Outside 174 Japan: Intercultural Communication

WAKEI NO NIWA, CANADIAN

MUSEUM OF CIVILIZATION

YŪSUIEN, ERHOLUNGSPARK

MARZAHN

188 SEIJAKU NO NIWA,

UNIVERSITY OF BERGEN

SANSHINTEI, ONE KOWLOON

192 OFFICE BUILDING

FUNITEI, PRIVATE RESIDENCE

IN STUTTGART

ZANMAITEI, NASSIM PARK

RESIDENCES SHOWFLAT

WAKEISEIJYAKU NO NIWA,

NASSIM PARK RESIDENCES

SEIKANTEI, PRIVATE

212 RESIDENCE IN NEW YORK CITY 216 Major Works 1984–2011 218 Endnotes 220 Glossary 222 Acknowledgments 223 Bibliography The contemporary karesansui (dry) garden at the Suifūso guesthouse, chōzubachi (water basin) at the Chūraitei private garden, the Japanese garden at the Canadian Embassy in Tokyo, the Yūsuien garden at the Erholungspark Marzahn, the Kanzatei garden at the Cerulean Tower Tokyu Hotel, and the Yui no Niwa Shinshūtei private garden.

FOREWORD BY

SHIGERU UCHIDA

This is entirely my own personal opinion: however, by coming into contact with many designs, I have become aware that there are two directions for design themes. They are the way to grasp a “thing” or “object” as a subject and the way to consider a “relationship” as a subject. Supposing we call the former “object as precedent,” the latter can be called “relationship as precedent.” Japanese culture is that in which everything is “relationship as precedent.” Many Western cultures can be seen as cultures with “object as precedent.” However, in that case the “thing” is the subject; by no means is it the predicate. In relational philosophy, formerly a relationship firstly had independent content, and it was thought that within that content, that relationship came into being.

However, recently it is thought that it is “unequivocal only because of the relationship.” The “relationship as precedent” is predicate logic. First of all, more than the subject, the predicate is valued. Independent meaning is removed from all things, then things come into existence only in the situation they fall into and in the circumstance of a relationship.

Things do not always display their fixed nature. Depending on the situation things fall into and the circumstances, even if they are the same, they create different meanings.

The first obstacle encountered in symbolic logic is probably when the concept of subject and predicate appeared within “predicate logic.” In the words “I am a designer,” first of all “I” exists, whether that existence is “designer” or “man” or else “Japanese person” is realized as a modifier or as a predicate. In any case, to begin with, there is a subject, one’s identity is ensured.

With regard to that, a pattern of something that can be described is in the background.

However, in predicate logic it becomes “subject is change.” If that is the case, the situation changes completely. Namely, where the modifier of being a “designer” does not change, but the changing of “I,” which becomes the subject, is required. In other words, in “predicate logic” the important thing is the modifier “designer.” The meaning of this content becomes the modifier. In Japanese culture, a relationship is such.

The rock arrangements in the gardens of Masuno Shunmyo also are thus. In regard to rocks as a subject, that predicate relationship of how they are arranged is important. The project of the Kantakeyama Shinen at the Samukawa shrine, through phase one and phase two, is an enormous undertaking. This kind of garden project is not formed with just one point of view. Most essential in Masuno’s garden design is the division of land. Namely, depending on the spatial composition of the site, first the framework is formed.

Here is a chisenkaiyushiki-teien (pond stroll garden), and attached to it are a chaya (tea pavilion) and chashitsu (teahouse). Furthermore, there is a Zen garden, and as an extension of the main hall [of the shrine], there also are the Kantakeyama mountain, a chinju no mori (sacred grove), and the Namba no Koike pond. A major theme is how to create a relationship between each of these things that has its own individual meaning. Moreover, on top of these relationships, each of their parts also comes into existence. The relationships of these parts and the overall relationship of many elements—these are composed depending on Masuno’s studied intention.

For example, the relationship of the ryūmonbaku [literally, “dragon’s gate waterfall”] and the stone bridge depends on the combination of rock arrangements and water, giving the viewer a profound impression and sense of grandeur.

Also the contrast of the natural rock of the ryūmonbaku and the rectilinearly hewn stone bridge produces a feeling of tension in these surroundings.

Also more pure than anything is the scenery from the Warakutei tea pavilion (chaya). Compared to the teahouse (chashitsu), that pleasure of the tea pavilion, the abounding sense of entertainment in the variation of the pond garden, is expressed. Even so, Masuno’s architectural skill truly is to be admired. To say what is good, it is the superb relationship between the garden and the architecture. This is because it is architecture made by the designer with the garden as the theme. It is easy if we say the relationship to the garden is superb, but that atmosphere exists because the architecture does not forcibly assert itself, yet it isn’t restrained.

The relationship of the architecture and the pond as viewed from the garden is something truly beautiful.

Also, when the garden is viewed from the interior horizontal opening, that horizontality comes together with the garden and rushes inside the room.

I also want to verify [these relationships in] other projects, but I’ll keep it to this. What one can feel from Masuno’s projects regards “relationality” and “object-ness.” However, so there is no misunderstanding here, in many cases depending on their complementarity, things are completed. What is important here is which thinking comes first. In all Japanese culture, relationality comes first.

Nighttime lighting softly illuminates the rock arrangements and raked gravel of the Chōsetsuko courtyard garden at the Ginrinsō Ryōkan.

Two Pairs of

Straw Sandals:

Zen Priest Garden Designer Shunmyo Masuno Shunmyo Masuno saws off the branches of bamboo stalks to use in the construction of a garden fence.

“The garden is a special spiritual place where the mind dwells.”1 For Shunmyo Masuno, this is the ultimate meaning of the Zen garden, coming from years of training, both as a Zen Buddhist priest and as a garden designer.

These two roles are inseparable in his life, as he describes with the Japanese expression “wearing two pairs of straw sandals” (nisoku no waraji wo haku).2 Garden making is a form of mental and physical training for Masuno, an act of selfcultivation akin to the training of a martial artist. Such acts of selfcultivation are required in the practice of Zen Buddhism.



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