WWW.THESES.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Theses, dissertations, documentation
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



«RESEARCH Open Access Biomedical engineering meets acupuncture development of a miniaturized 48-channel skin impedance measurement system for needle ...»

Litscher and Wang BioMedical Engineering OnLine 2010, 9:78

http://www.biomedical-engineering-online.com/content/9/1/78

RESEARCH Open Access

Biomedical engineering meets acupuncture development of a miniaturized 48-channel skin

impedance measurement system for needle and

laser acupuncture

Gerhard Litscher*, Lu Wang

* Correspondence: gerhard.

Abstract

litscher@medunigraz.at Research Unit of Biomedical Background: Due to controversially discussed results in scientific literature Engineering in Anesthesia and concerning changes of electrical skin impedance before and during acupuncture a Intensive Care Medicine and TCM new measurement system has been developed.

Research Center Graz, Medical University of Graz, Methods: The prototype measures and analyzes the electrical skin impedance Auenbruggerplatz 29, 8036 Graz, computer-based and simultaneously in 48 channels within a 2.5×3.5 cm matrix.

Austria Preliminary measurements in one person were performed using metal needle and violet laser (405 nm) acupuncture at the acupoint Kongzui (LU6). The new system is an improvement on devices previously developed by other researchers for this purpose.

Results: Skin impedance in the immediate surroundings of the acupoint was lowered reproducibly following needle stimulation and also violet laser stimulation.

Conclusions: A new instrumentation for skin impedance measurements is presented.

The following hypotheses suggested by our results will have to be tested in further studies: Needle acupuncture causes significant, specific local changes of electrical skin impedance parameters. Optical stimulation (violet laser) at an acupoint causes direct electrical biosignal changes.

Background The autonomic nervous system plays a key role in basic acupuncture research [1].

There are several studies evaluating the electrical properties of acupuncture points and meridians [2]. For the first time we are able to investigate possible acupuncture-specific changes in the activity of the autonomic nervous system using a newly develop

–  –  –

Figure 1 Technical details of the newly developed acupuncture impedance measurement system.

From left to right and top to bottom: Printed circuit board assembly, measurement system with grounding electrode for the wrist including a hook-and-loop fastener, sensor unit; circuit diagram; 48 spring load mounted skin electrode contact cylinders; ECG grounding electrode compared in size to the sensor part of the measurement system.

Figure 2 Acupuncture point and practical details of the new impedance measurement system.

From left to right and top to bottom: Localization of the acupuncture point Lu 6 (Kongzui); documentation of the first measurement performed at the TCM Research Center Graz (May 7, 2010); application and manual stimulation of a metal needle via the system’s guiding rail provided for this purpose; puncture site of the needle (red arrow) compared to the indentations of the miniaturized measurement cylinders (e.g. black arrow); violet laser (405 nm) stimulation between the registration sites (distance 2.5 mm).

Litscher and Wang BioMedical Engineering OnLine 2010, 9:78 Page 4 of 7 http://www.biomedical-engineering-online.com/content/9/1/78

–  –  –

Results and Discussion All recordings were reliable at all 48 skin sites. The first results showed very interesting changes in skin impedance in several registration channels. For example, skin impedance in the immediate surroundings of the acupoint was lowered reproducibly following manual needle stimulation (Figure 3). In case of violet laser stimulation these phenomena could also be observed in an evidence-based manner (Figure 4).

As mentioned in the background section, there are some already existing important systems. Already in 1976, Becker et al. [3] have performed very interesting measurements with a system based on the same idea (multi-channel recordings). However, the data are not directly comparable because they used different materials, different interelectrode distances and also a different recording procedure. They first investigated the skin with a meridian scanning probe (1-channel system) and then with the 36channel system. One of the main disadvantages of this previously developed system was that investigations can only be performed in the resting period, but not during acupuncture stimulation. With our system, it is possible for the first time to continuously and simultaneously monitor a region of interest (around the acupoint) even during the insertion of a metal needle or the activation/deactivation of a laser for acupuncture.

The previously existing limitations of electrodermal impedance measurements were the measurement area (point selectors with a tip only, representing a hand-held 1channel system) and related problems (pressure, angle) and also too few registration sites (in most cases only punctual measurements, no multi-channel systems)[7,8]. In contrast to our electrode configuration (electrode diameter 0.9 mm), the electrodes of the system of Colbert et al. [8] have a diameter of 4 mm and are fixed separately at the body surface with an elastic adhesive or cloth wrist band. “Confounding factors, such as skin moisture, electrode pressure, stratum corneum thickness, electrode polarization and other factors, have led many to assert that the reportedly distinct electrical characteristics are attributable to external factors and/or artifacts and not to the acupuncture point or meridian” [2]. The newly developed system allows for the first time simultaneous and continuous, acupuncture-relevant multi-channel measurements using appropriate analysis methods. As we have only performed measurements in one subject, further measurements in a great number of healthy volunteers are absolutely necessary.

–  –  –

Figure 3 Analyses of the 48 channels of the impedance system during needle insertion and needle stimulation. Top: Circular chart - needle stimulation (time in sec clockwise and resistance R in kOhm from center outwards). Bottom: Changes in electrodermal impedance during manual needle stimulation (note the lowered impedance in some, but not all channels). Six channels surrounding the acupoint were randomly chosen. In this measurement, the most marked change in impedance during insertion and stimulation of the metal needle can be found in one electrode (yellow line) next (2.5 mm) to the acupoint.

–  –  –

Figure 4 First analysis of changes of impedance during contact-free violet laser stimulation. Top:

Circular chart - violet laser acupuncture, details see Figure 3. Bottom: Changes in electrodermal impedance immediately following the onset of violet laser stimulation in specific registration sites only. Three channels surrounding the acupoint were randomly chosen. In this measurement, the ‘on-effect’ of the violet laser is clearly demonstrated.

The latter result (iii) could be the first proof in acupuncture research that optical stimulation (violet laser) at an acupoint causes a direct electrical biosignal change at a distance of 3 mm. This fact alone might yield answers to important core questions in acupuncture (meridian and/or placebo research), be it for further basic or clinical acupuncture research.

–  –  –

project ‘Bioengineering and clinical assessment of high-tech acupuncture - A Sino-Austrian research pilot study’ (Austrian Ministries of Health and of Science and Research and the Eurasia-Pacific Uninet) and was supported by the Science Department of the City of Graz.

The Austrian Society for Controlled Acupuncture (OGKA) has awarded the scientific work described in this paper with the OGKA Scientific Award 2010 for TCM Basic Research (award ceremony on Sep 25, 2010).

–  –  –





Similar works:

«Accident & Health International Underwriting Pty Ltd HIRE CAR EXCESS EXPENSES POLICY DAH Holdings Pty Limited t/as Auto Europe Product Disclosure Statement (PDS) Accident & Health International (A & H International) Accident & Health International Underwriting Pty Limited, ABN 26 053 335 952, AFS licence no. 238261, is an underwriting agency specifically created to provide Personal Accident, Medical and Travel insurance. They have been in operation since March 1998 and act on behalf of CGU...»

«WORKBOOK: POLICY & STRATEGY Venue Duration Date Policy and Strategy Development to Improve Population Health & Wellbeing Workbook NAME: ORGANISATION: This Workbook is Personal & Confidential to the Programme Participant. It has been designed in modular fashion to accommodate Pre-Workshop Activity, materials provided in the Workshop and also to facilitate optional Post-Workshop further learning and development. The Work-Book content will be delivered in sections/segments. WE HAVE PROVIDED A...»

«Communication (Clinical Handover) in Acute and Children’s Hospital Services National Clinical Guideline No. 11 Summary November 2015 Guideline Development Group The National Communication (Clinical Handover) Guideline Development Group (GDG) was a work stream of the National Implementation Group – HSE/HIQA Maternity Services Investigations (HSE) under the governance of the Acute Hospitals Division, HSE. This group will be referred to as the GDG throughout this document. The GDG was...»

«UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY Graduate Medical Education Policy and Procedures Manual 2011-2012 Table of Contents INTRODUCTION I. INSTITUTIONAL ORGANIZATION AND RESPONSIBLITIES I.A. Sponsoring Institution I.B. Commitment to Graduate Medical Education (GME) I.B.1. Statement of Commitment I.B.2. Institutional Oversight and Administration Policy on Designee in the Absence of the DIO Policy on Annual Report to the Organized Medical Staff I.B.3. Institutional Resources Program Director Protected...»

«2nd Russian Conference on Medicinal Chemistry 2nd Youth School Conference on Medicinal Chemistry School-Conference 6th Russian-Korean Conference “Current Issues of Biologically Active Compound Korean Chemistry and Biotechnology” MedChem 2015 p://web.nioch.nsc.ru/medchem2015/ /medchem2015/ Book of abstracts July 5-10, 2015 Novosibirsk Russia Novosibirsk, 2nd Russian Conference on Medicinal Chemistry 6th Russian-Korean Conference Current Issues of Biologically Active Compounds Chemistry and...»

«Medicines shortages 2013 Evidence from Chemist+Druggist, Ludgate House, 245 Blackfriars Road, London SE1 9UY Gemma Collins News editor, C+D gemma.collins@ubm.com Contents Executive summary 3 Introduction 4 C+D’s findings The current medicines supply chain is not working 6 Patients are being harmed 10 Pharmacists want to see action from the government 14 Next steps 16 Appendix 1: C+D Stocks Survey results 17 Appendix 2: C+D’s interactive reporting tool results 21 Appendix 3: Pharmacists’...»

«MINUTES University of Minnesota Medical School Faculty Advisory Council October 6, 2009 The meeting of the Medical School Faculty Advisory Council (FAC) was held on Tuesday, October 6 at 4:00 p.m. in Room B646 Mayo Memorial Building and 146 School of Medicine Duluth (via ITV). David Ingbar, Chair of the FAC presided. Members Present: Drs. Aviva Abosch, Robert Acton, Sharon Allen, Vivian Bardwell, Bradley Benson, Susan Berry, Peter Bitterman, Paul Bohjanen, Joseph Brocato, James Carey, John Day,...»

«Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) Program Distance Accessible The DNP is a practice-focused terminal degree to prepare graduates to practice at the highest level in specialty practice or to assume leadership positions in healthcare. Graduates of the DNP program will focus on providing care to populations and communities with an emphasis on improving quality and access to underserved, diverse populations. The three components of the DNP are advanced clinical specialty practice, leadership, and...»

«Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/thrb.v15i1.7 Tanzania Journal of Health Research Volume 15, Number 1, January 2013 Self-inflicted serious injuries among adolescents in Zambia ADAMSON S. MUULA*1, SETER SIZIYA2 and EMMANUEL RUDATSIKIRA3 Department of Community Health, University of Malawi, College of Medicine, Blantyre, Malawi Department of Public Health, University of Zambia, School of Medicine, Lusaka, Zambia School of Community and Environmental Health, Old Dominion University, Virginia, United...»

«A A R P E U R O P E A N L E A D E R S H I P S T U D Y: European Experiences with Health Care Cost Containment France, the Netherlands, Norway, and the United Kingdom October 2006 The rapidly increasing cost of health care, driven by new technologies and treatments, and increasing utilization is a challenge that virtually all industrialized societies are struggling to combat. Special thanks to Dan Ermann of the Public Policy Institute and the Global Aging Program for their time and dedication to...»

«F IN MAT HERRAMIENTA DE EVALUACIÓN DE LA ADMINISTRACIÓN FINANCIERA OTRAS PUBLICACIONES DE MANAGEMENT SCIENCES FOR HEALTH Cost Revenue Analysis Plus (CORE Plus), a Tool for Cost and Revenue Analysis: User’s Guide (Guía del usuario para la herramienta de análisis de costos e ingresos CORE Plus). Cost-Estimate Strategy for Reproductive Health Commodity Management: User’s Guide (Guía del usuario de la estrategia de estimación del costo para la administración de productos de salud...»

«United States Department of Agriculture OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAl Implementation of the Public Health Information System for Domestic Inspection 24601-0001-23 August 2015 10401-0001-22 Implementation of the Public Health Information  System for Domestic Inspection  Audit Report 24601-0001-23  What Were OIG’s Objectives We evaluated FSIS’ implementation and oversight of the domestic module of PHIS. OIG reviewed PHIS to determine if the  What OIG Reviewed...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.theses.xlibx.info - Theses, dissertations, documentation

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.